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Entlehnungen im Amerikanischen Englisch
aus den Indianischen und europäischen Sprachen

Indian . . . . . French . . . . . Spanish . . . . . Dutch . . . . . German

Indian Influence

Trees, Plants, Fruits

catalpa / catawba / hickory / pecan / persimmon / poke (-berry, -weed) / scuppernong / sequoia / squash / tamarack / tomato

Animals

cayuse / coyote / chipmunk / moose / muskrat / opossum / raccoon / skunk / terrapin / woodchuck

Fish

menhaden / muskellunge / porgy / quahog

Political Terms

caucus / mugwump / Tammany

Foods

hominy / hooch / pemmican / pone / succotash / supawn

Amerindian Culture

manitou / potlatch / powwow / sachem / skookum / totem // papoose / squaw // mackinaw / moccasin / tomahawk / wampum // hogan / igloo / kayak / tepee / wigwam

Miscellaneous

chautauqua / chinook / podunk

French Influence

Plants and Animals

caribou / crappie / gopher / pumkin

Foods

brioche / chowder / jambalaya / (pie) a la mode / praline / sazarac

Toponymics

bayou / butte / chute / coulee / crevasse / flume / levee / prairie / rapids / sault

Furniture and Building

armoire / bureau / depot / shanty

Exploration and Travel

bateau / cache / carry-all / pirogue / portage / toboggan / voyageur

Coinage

cent / dime / mill

Miscellaneous

apache / (Indian) brave / Cajun / calumet / Canuck / chambray / charivari / lacrosse / lagniappe / parlay / picayune / rotisserie / sashay

Spanish Influence

Plants and Animals

alfalfa / marijuana / mesquite / yucca / armadillo / bronco / burro / barracuda / bonito / pompano // chigger (jigger) / cockroach / coyote / mustang / palomino / pinto / vinegarroon

Food and Drink

chile con carne / enchilada / frijole / jerk (jerked meat) / mescal / pinion nuts / taco / tamale / tequila / tortilla / guacamole

Clothing

chaps / poncho / serape / sombrero / ten-gallon hat

Ranch Life

buckaroo / chaparral / cinch / corral / cuarta / hacienda / lariat / lasso / peon / quirt / ranch / reata / rodeo / stampede / wrangler

Building

adobe / cafeteria / patio / plaza / pueblo

Mining

bonanza / placer

Legal and Penal

calaboose / cuartel / desperado / hoosegow / incommunicado / vigilantes

Toponymics

arroyo / barranca / canyon / key / mesa / sierra

Races and Nationalities

conch / coon / creole / dago / mulatto / octoroon / pickaninny / quadroon

Miscellaneous

coquina / fiesta / filibuster / hombre / loco / marina / mosey / pronto / rumba / savvy / stevedore / temblor / tornado / vamoose

Dutch Influence

Food

cole slaw / cookie / cruller / pit (“stone” or “seed”) / pot cheese / waffle

Toponymics

bush (“back country”) / hook (of land)

Transportation

caboose / scow / sleigh / span (of horses)

Farm and Building

hay barrack / stoop (“porch”) / saw buck

Social Classification

boss / patroon / Yankee

Miscellaneous

boodle / dingus / dope / dump (“stupid”) / logy / poppycock / Santa Claus / snoop / spook

German Influence

Food and Drink

beer soup / blutwurst / bock beer / delicatessen / dunk / fossnocks / frankfurter / hamburger / lager beer / liverwurst / noodle / ponhaus / pretzel / pumpernickel / sauerbraten / sauerkraut / schnitzel / smear case / snits / springerle / stollen / sweitzer cheese / thick milk / wienerwurst / zwieback

Educational

diener (“laboratory assistant”) / festschrift / semester / seminar

Social

Belschnickel / beer garden / bower (“jack” or “knave”) / Christmas tree // Kris Kringle / pinochle / rathskeller / saengerfest / stein / Turner / turnverein

Miscellaneous

bub / bum / fresh (“impudent”) / hausfrau / hex (noun and verb) / katzenjammer / loafer / nix / phooey / spiel, spieler / wunderkind
Quelle: Marckwardt, Albert H.: American English. 2nd ed. New York/Oxford: Oxford UP 1980.

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